Tulburarile Specifice de Invatare (TSI)

Ce sunt Tulburarile Specifice de Invatare (TSI)

Monica Bolocan, psiholog clinician si educational

TSI este un concept-umbrela pentru o larga varietate de dificultati de invatare a cititului, scrisului, calculului si rationamentului matematic. Categoria diagnostica a TSI este inclusa in DSM-V (noul Manual Diagnostic si Statistic al tulburarilor mentale editat de American Psychiatric Association) in capitolul “Tulburari de neuro-dezvoltare”.

Originea biologica a TSI este cel mai probabil urmare a interactiunii dintre factorii genetici, congenitali si de mediu care afecteaza abilitatea creierului de a percepe si procesa eficient si cu acuratete informatia verbala si non-verbala.

Astfel, TSI sunt determinate de deficite ale proceselor cognitive specifice implicate in invatare.

Prin urmare, aceste tulburari NU se datoreaza urmatorilor factori sau conditii:

  • Deficitului intelectual (IQ liminar sau retard cognitiv)
  • Deficiente senzoriale (de auz, de vedere, motorii) sau fizice
  • Intarzierilor globale in dezvoltare (ex: autism) sau altor tulburari de neurodezvoltare (ex: ADHD)
  • Factorilor defavorizanti de mediu precum: deprivarea, abuzul, stimularea insuficienta sau inadecvata, lipsa educatiei si instruirii adecvate, statutului socio-economic scazut sau lipsei motivatiei pentru invatare
  • Diversitatii lingvistice si culturale (ex: cunoasterea insuficienta a limbii de predare-invatare)
  • Tulburarilor afectiv-emotionale (ex: anxietate, depresie) sau altor tulburari de natura psihiatrica sau neurologica

Este important de mentionat ca TSI co-exista frecvent cu alte tulburari de neurodezvoltare (ex: ADHD), tulburari afective (ex: anxietate, fobie scolara), afectiuni medicale diverse (ex: epilepsie), deficite senzoriale etc, insa TSI nu sunt o consecinta a acestora ci o afectiune separata, de sine-statatoare.

Spre deosebire de mers si vorbit care sunt abilitati de dezvoltare ce se castiga natural, odata cu maturizarea creierului, abilitatile academice (scris, citit, calcul matematic) se invata sub instruirea atenta a unui adult. Prezenta unei TSI afecteaza schema normala de achizitionare a acestor abilitati datorita functionarii neurologice atipice. Practic, creierul copiilor cu TSI functioneaza pur si simplu altfel, fiind “cablat” diferit, fara a insemna ca este “bolnav”.

Un element cheie in diagnosticarea TSI este nivelul cognitiv general (IQ-ul). Astfel, dificultatile de invatare NU trebuie sa fie urmare a unui nivel general scazut de intelegere si functionare cognitiva. Copiii cu TSI au un intelect normal si de foarte multe ori superior, insa prezinta o discrepanta semnificativa (de minim 1,5 abateri standard la testele de evaluare standardizate, conform recomandarilor internationale) intre scorul IQ si scorul la testele de evaluare a performantei academice.

TSI sunt prezente intr-o mare varietate de combinatii. Foarte rar un copil este numai dislexic, sau numai diagrafic. De obicei, copiii prezinta o combinatie in diverse grade de severitate (usor, moderat, sever) ale celor patru forme de manifestare a TSI: dislexie, diagrafie, disortografie, discalculie. In plus, asocierea cu alte tulburari (ADHD, anxietate, opozionism etc) face din fiecare copil cu TSI o persoana unica din punct de vedere al profilului sau psihologic.

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